Dinosaurs Before Adam?
What do the facts of science and the Bible reveal about dinosaursabout the earth before Adam? Why is evolutionary geology unable to account for the sudden extinction of dinosaurs? Here are the answers from the Geology Department of Ambassador College.
DID you know that once literally MILLIONS of dinosaurs and other creatures suddenly perished from the face of the earth? Why? How did it happen?
Why are scientists puzzled by this catastrophic "time of great dying"?
Evolution Has No Answers
Probably you never realized that most scientists are AFRAID to look into the Bible. If they did, they would be shocked. They would find it to be the key to reconstructing earth's history!
The Bib!e answers all these questions. It reveals whether the earth is older than manjust what kind of world God created in the beginning, But there has been a conspiracy to hide the Biblical truths which answer these vital questions!
Evolution has no answer to the SUDDEN' disappearance of dinosaurs. No answers to the almost complete change of both plant and animal life forms at the end of what scientists have dubbed the Mesozoic Era."
Why is the present world fitted for man's existence, while the world of the dinosaurs was unfit for human survival? Here is the answer.
Suppose YOU Visit a Museum
Take a brief walk through any natural history museum. It will reveal a vast array of charts and fossils depicting the theory of organic evolution. Geology, you will be told, provides evidence of a succession of life forms in the strata of the earth.
But does the record of the rocks really show this? Do the facts of science substantiate these "scientific" theories?
Furthermore, it is claimed, the earth is billions of years old and the fossil record the aged bones, tracks, and other remains of extinct animals and plantsproves that life has been evolving over millions of years. Nonsense!
Why have scientists RE buried the facts only to resurrect them in the image of their evolutionary theories? This article explains why.
Life, according to these scientists, began in what they call the ancient "Cryptozoic Eon." Then, as it supposedly slowly developed into many different kinds of life, these "developing" plants and animals were buried in the rocks and became fossils. But do we find a record of "developing fossils"a record of "half-way developed" plants and animals in successive order?
The answer is No!
Actually, the divisions of the geologic time scale, which you will see in any museum do NOT really represent great elapses of time. They depict rather thick sedimentary layers which were deposited quickly to preserve fossils.
But scientists say evolution is a very slow process. Therefore, the evolutionist, in order to prove his theory, creates different "eons," "eras," "periods," "epochs," and "ages" to allow what be considers sufficient time for evolution to occur.
These vast theoretical units of time, which evolutionists have allowed in the geological time scale, do not represent a succession of life forms in successive eras. They show, instead, the relative order in which life died during TWO great world-wide destructionsboth of which are mentioned in the Bible.
What the FACTS Show
The average Bible student does not correctly interpret the findings of geologic science, The vast array of charts, graphs, and long, detailed explanations of the scientistsbased upon the fossil remainsseem to disprove what most so-called Christians have been taught about the Bible, And no wonder! For what most professing Christians have been taught about the Bible is wrong!
It is time to look at the facts of science and see what they really do prove!
You don't need to fear the facts of science, God's Word is truth (John 17:17), The Bible was not written as a science textbook, yet whenever it does speak on events which would affect the geological question, it stands true!
Let us investigate the findings of science and see if they prove the theories of science or the teachings of The Holy Bible.
We can use any modern geology textbook to investigate these theories and facts. You don't have to fear the facts of scientific research and discovery. Rather, use them as tools to make the Bible more meaningful. It is the evolutionist who is afraid of the Bible.
"The Time of the Great Dying"
Notice this admission from the well-known geology book, Historical Geology, by Carl O. Dunbar, Here is what he says about the sudden extinction of dinosaurs.
"The end of the Cretaceous, like the close of the Paleozoic, proved to be a great crisis in the history of life. . For example, the dinosaurs were highly varied and apparently adaptive right up to the end of Laramie Time, yet not one is known to have lived to see the dawn of the Cenozoic Era (the age of man), . . . The marine invertebrates did not escape the crisis.
"It is difficult to account for the simultaneous extinction of great tribes of animals so diverse in relationships and in habitats of life , . , Whatever the cause, the latest Mesozoic was a time of trial when many of the hosts were 'tried in the balance and found wantingwanting in adaptiveness to their new environment. Walther has picturesquely called it 'the time of the great dying"' (Historical Geology, pages 345, 348, emphasis ours throughout the article).
Naturally, this evolutionist has couched the "time of trial" and "great dying" in evolutionary language. But the fact remains that great tribes of animals suddenly disappear from the geological record in the Mesozoic rocks without any gradual extinction as the theory of evolution would require.
The dinosaurs are an outstanding example of this. Entire books have been written attempting to put forth reasons for the sudden extinction of the dinosaurs. Notice this amazing admission: "At the present time we can therefore only look upon the problem of extinction of the dinosaurs as * hard fact, as a closing of a most spectacular chapter in the history of life on the earth" (Dinosaurs, Colbert, page 259).
The "hard fact" and "problem" of the extinction of the dinosaurs as well as many other forms of life during the time Mesozoic rocks were deposited is indeed a problem for the theory of evolution. For, the theory does not allow for any sudden appearance or disappearance of life forms! Yet, the facts of science show this very thing has happened. The FACTS of historical geology do not agree with the theories of evolutionary geology!
SUDDEN Appearance of New Forms of Life
Evolutionary scientists are not only faced with the facts of the sudden disappearance of many varied forms of life, but they also have to account for the sudden appearance of new forms of life. Notice this admission, once again from the book Historical Geology: GG Simpson he has said, that most dramatic and in many respects "the most puzzling event in the history of life on the earth, ... is the change from the Mesozok Age of Reptiles, to the . . . Age of Mammals. It is as if the curtain were rung down SUDDENLY on a stage where all the leading roles were taken by reptiles, especially dinosaurs, in great numbers and bewildering variety, and rose again IMMEDIATELY to reveal the same setting but an entirely new cast, a cast in which the dinosaurs do not appear at all, other reptiles are mere supernumeraries and the leading parts are all played by mammals. . .'" (page 426).
And on page 404 he states further: "Throughout the long Mesozoic Era for more than a hundred million years reptiles completely dominated life on the Earth; but at its close their dynasty SUDDENLY collapsed. Turtles, lizards, snakes, and crocodiles survived, but they are mostly small and restricted in their range, and few are aggressive."
Yes the curtain was rung down on the reptilian hostand suddenly! The reptiles alive today on the earth are no comparison to the vast and impressive numbers of these awesome creatures that once completely dominated the earth! This Mesozoic "Era" was the ringing down of the curtain in earthshaking destruction of this impressive host of reptiles. It was not an era in which animals lived and multiplied but a short, violent catastrophe.
CHAOS on Earth, Too!
Not only do we find that the facts of science show a sudden disappearance and appearance of certain life forms, but also the rocks reveal the earth itself has had radical change in its history. For example, the modern appearance of the surface of the earth would have been unknown in the Mesozoic Era: "Every feature of the modern landscape was shaped during the last short era of geologic time. The Alps and the Himalayas have come up from the sea floor; the Rocky Mountains have been worn down and then uplifted to their present height; the Appalachian Ridges have been etched into relief; and the other mountain ranges of the world have been elevated and sculptured to their present forms since the beginning of the Cenozoic Era. The streams also have attained the courses they now follow, and climatic zones have assumed their modern character. . . . This era (the Cenozoic Era) saw the modern world unfold!" (Historical Geology, page 352).
Here again, we must distinguish between the facts of science and the theories of evolutionary science. The facts show the modern mountain ranges, climatic zonest animals, and plants are a feature of this geologic time since Adamthe Cenozoic "Era." However, evolutionary explanations of why or how these changes came about are only their theories. There is a great difference between the theories and the facts of science!
The Bible the Only Basis
God gave His Holy Bible as a basis of all knowledge. Any "knowledge" contrary to the information revealed by God in His Word is untrue. If you have not proved the Bible to be the infallible Word of God, you need to do this ahead of further geologic research. See... 'The Proof of the Bible," and "Does God Exist?" and "Seven Proofs God Exists" ... . Once you have proved the Bible to be God's Word, you. will have an absolute guide!
Then, what about the scientists' claim that the earth is perhaps billions of years old, and that the fossil record in the rocks proves their theory of evolution? Is there any truth in either of these statements?
Much unnecessary confusion has arisen among Bible students who do not understand that the earth was created longperhaps even billions of years before man. SEE... "Did God Create a Devil?"
The Bible nowhere tells us when the earth was created. God does not tell us how long the earth had been in existence before He created man. However, Biblical chronology reveals that man has been on this earth for almost 6000 years. How can we use this knowledge to understand the record in the rocks?
Genesis One the Key!
Using the facts of science, let us compare them with the teaching of the Bible. Let us begin with Genesis, chapter one.
The six days of Creation are well known to any Bible student. These were six literal days of 24 hours' duration. SEE... "How Long Were the Days of creation Let us closely examine the Bible's account of events which occurred on these six days and see what they reveal. We will dwell on the animal and plant life mentioned in the account and note carefully the description of this new creation.
On the third day God said: "Let the earth bring forth grass, the herb yielding seed, and the fruit tree yielding fruit after his kind, whose seed is in itself, upon the earth: and it was so" (Gen. 1:11).
Now let us examine the geology books again and discover what the facts of science reveal. We will find a direct correlation between the revelation of the Bible and the findings in the rock layers! Notice this amazing admission: "One of the big problems of plant evolution, and especially of the evolution of flowering plants (fruit trees, etc.), is the fact that the latter appears so suddenly in the geological record, As we pointed out earlier, they (the flowering plants) appear in a great -variety and abundance in the late Cretaceous period, Darwin called their origin an 'abominable mystery" and most evolutionists today still agree. Stott says much the same, He points out that the fossil record of the flowering plants shows NO SIGNS of a beginning, for with few exceptions all the specimens can be referred to families itill existing" (Genes, Genesis, and Evolution, Klotz, p. 453).
Another scientist agrees: "Deciduous trees suddenly became conspicuous in the Early Cretaceous, and long before the close of the period dominated 'the landscape and all the continents, just as they do today" (Historical Geology, page 332).
Most deciduous trees are true flowering plants. Genesis 1:11 would also include the grasses of the field, the fruit-bearing shrubs, vegetables, cereals, and the other seed- and fruit-bearing shrubs.
Here then is direct geologic confirmation of the Scriptures! The plants described in Genesis 1:11 appear suddenly in the geologic record. No gradual evolution here!
Is it only coincidence that all these plants suddenly appear in the geologic record? Of course not!
There are many other "coincidences" when we compare the geological record with the Bible account of Creation in Genesis 1.
The fifth day of Creation saw the addition of fish and birds to the earth (Gen. 1:20-23). All geology books assert that fish have been on this earth long before man existed. If this is true, then why are fish included in the Creation account in Genesis? Remember, the animals and plants, in general, as described in Genesis are those which are associated with man.
The plain truth is that when geology books mention fish in the Paleozoic Era, they are not generally referring to the fish which today populate the waters of the earth, "Most of the modern families (of .fish) and a few existing genera probably date from the Eocene (a subdivision of the modern era)" (General Zoology, Storer, page 610).
This is further substantiated by the following admission from the book Creation By Evolution; "In the following Cretaceous seas there were a few fishes that had the bony support of the tail as well formed as that of most existing bony fishes; indeed the reign of the modern THIN-SCALED bony fishes, completely adapted for rapid movement in water, had begun, and the only subsequent changes were those which have given almost endless variety to this thoroughly efficient race" (page 131).
Thus, those fish associated with dinosaurs did not have the thin scales of modern fish, but had hard, enamel-like plates. The modern fish which we have today appeared at the time of Adam, as Genesis records and geological findings validate.
As we have already noticed in Genesis 1:20, the bird family was also created on the fifth day. However, this does not include the winged reptilewith wing claws, teeth, and long tail bone which scientists named Archeopteryx.
It was not until the modern era that the true birds appear: "Modern types of birds, all toothless, appeared before the close of the Cretaceous, and in the Eocene (a division of the Cenozoic the era of man) most of the present orders were represented" (Historical Geology, page 435).
Thus, modern true toothless birds definitely were not present before the "Cretaceous Period," which basically divides the world of the dinosaur from the world which existed after Adam's creation. Here again the findings of geology substantiate the teachings of the Bible!
On the sixth day God created the "cattlei and creeping thing (insects), and the beast of the eanh after his kind" (Gen. 1:24). Modern classification of animals places the cattle and beasts in the ckss of Mammalia. Mammals, as we have seen previously, are so characteristic of the Cenozoic (modern) Era that it has been rightly called the "Age of Mammals." The curtain which rang down suddenly on the disappearance of the reptilian world just as suddenly introduced the "Age of Mammals"the creation described in Genesis 1:24*23!
WHY the Sudden Change of Life Forms?
The previously mentioned article, "Did God Create a Devil?" explains the time lapse which occurred between Genesis 1:1 and Genesis 1:2. The earth, as we have seen, was created at an indefinite timeperhaps millions or even billions of years ago, Man, however, has been on this earth only about 6000 years, as proven by Biblical chronology and supported by the historical records of many nations.
Ezekiel 28 and Isaiah 14 tell of the time when the great archangel called Luciferwho ruled the earth before Adam's creationrebelled against his Creator and fought God's loyal angels for control of the universe. In his rebellion, he led away one third of the angelic world (Rev. 12:4). Jude 6 tells us of this very same time. Satan did not want to remain on the earth as the angelic servant of Godeven though the whole earth was then as beautiful as the Garden of Edenbut he became jealous and tried to take away the authority of God (compare Isa. 14:13-14 and Jude 6). It was at this time that the archangel Lucifer became Satan!
This great battle for the control of the universe caused great destruction upon the earth. Animal and plant life of the types that then lived were destroyed, rapidly buried, and fossilized. The earth BECAME chaotic and void (as Gen. 1:2 is more properly rendered).
Life was taken from the earth so that when God rebuilt the surface of the earth and created man and the many new life forms described in Genesis 1, 2, God commanded man to replenish or repopulatethe earth (Gen. 1:28). The word "replenish" literally means "to refill" and would not have been used if life had not been on the earth in an age before Adam! The same word is used in Genesis 9:1 after the flood in Noahs time had completely destroyed all animal life except that which survived in the ark. The earth had to once again be replenished at the time of Noah! Thus this sin of the angels was therefore before the time of Adams creation. Remember it was very soon after Adams creation that Satan tempted Eve (Gen.3). Lucifer had already fallen!
Remember also that it was on the first day of Creationshortly before the creation of manthat the earth was without form and void (Gen. 1:2). The first six days recorded in Genesis 1 describe the surface of the earth being reformed out of a chaotic condition! Yet, Isaiah 45:18 plainly tells us that God did not create the world in this condition of a void wasteland! The earth became chaotic at the rebellion of Satan before the creation of man.
The truth now becomes clear! The earth had been populated by various forms of plant and animal life before. Adam. At the rebellion of Lucifer against the authority of God, the earth was thrown into chaos and a time of "great dying" and "time of trial" ensued. Many animals vanished from the earth at the end of Mesozok, never again to be found in the later rock strata. God did not give man a hostile reptilian world filled with dinosaurs to inhabit! Instead, He provided man with a special creation suited for man and his needs!
Present World for MAN!
Let us now more closely examine why many new forms of life appear in the Cenozoic Era with man. Genesis 1, 2 will again provide the key! Notice the importance to man of these plants and animals that were created with man.
The following admission will quickly summarise the usefulness of the plants described in Genesis 1:11-12, which we have noted appeared suddenly in the geologic record. ". . , They (the angiobsperms, or our modern plants) supply nearly all the plant life for the mammals (which also, remember, appeared suddenly at this same time) that now dominate all other life upon the earth. Angiosperms provide the nuts and fruits of the field, the grasses of the prairies, the cereals which furnish fodder and grain for man and his domestic animals.. and all the vegetables and fruits that MAN has cultivated, to say nothing of the flowers that add so much pleasure and inspiration to HUMAN surroundings" (Historical Geology, page 336). These plants did not inhabit Lucifer's world before man because Lucifer and the angels did not need them.
God not only created man, but He created with and for man a world suitable for him. Man could not have survived on the earth before this time! The animals and plants man uses for food were not in existence in the pre-Adamic world. When God created man, He also created the necessary animals and plant life to sustain him! God is indeed a good and gracious Provider!
In relation to sea life, notice his amazing admission from the book Creation By Evolution: "It is also interesting to note that the fishes which achieved these latest developments (thin scales) include nearly Al those that are used as food by man today" (page 131 ) As we have seen previously, the modern thin-scaled fishedible for manappear in the Cretaceous rocks! Here again we see Scripture wholly backed up by the facts of science! Both the time elements of their appearance and their usefulness to mankind are again confirmation of God's Word!
The same is true concerning the true birds which appear in the Cretaceous rocks. Birds are very useful to man for foodas in domestic birdsand for holding a check on insects, weed seeds, and rodents. The beauty and song of birds were especially designed to please man's senses. The flying reptiles of the pre-Adamic world would hardly appeal to man's tastes or compare to the modern birds in usefulness to man!
The importance of mammals to man is immensein the role of providers of food, clothing, and beasts of burden, The importance of mammals to man cannot be overemphasized! But the same could not be said of animals that existed with the dinosaur in Lucifer's pre-Adamic world.
Dinosaur Mystery Made Plain
In summary, we have seen how the Bible does not tell us the earth's age, but does tell us man has been on the earth almost 6000 years. Before the age of man the earth was filled with animals and plants which characterized Lucifer and his host. The great dinosaurs and other forms of Lucifer's world were buried in vast fossil graveyards as a re-suit of Lucifer's rebellion. Later, just before God created man, the earth had to be remade into a livable habitation for man (Gen. 1, 2). God created the animals and plants necessary for man during the six days of Creation week.'! Fossils of these plants and animals are generally speaking, the result of Noah's flood or other events which have occurred in the past 6000 years.
We have briefly seen how the two great divisions of life on this earths as recorded in the geological record coincide with the teaching of God's Word. There is no contradiction between the facts of science and God's inspired revelation to man!
But, mankind has rejected God from his knowledge and wishes to substitute his own theories for the goodness of God (Rom. l:18-22: 28). The beginning of true knowledge comes only from a fear of God (Prov, 1:7).
Evolutionistswithout God's Word as a guideare "ever learning, and never able to come to the knowledge of the truth" (11 Tim. 3:7). Evolutionary scientists will continue to devise and discard one theory after another, bnt the facts of science will always agree with God's Word!
geologists label the "Cenozoic Era" is, in
reality, the Age of Man's existence on the earth. It is
characterized by the abundance of animals and plants
essential for HUMAN survival. Livestock and other
mammals, and fish and fowl, which provide meat for Man,
are found buried only in the strata of this
"age." Fruits, vegetables and grains are
characteristic only of this world and are entirely
missing from the pre-Adamic or "Pre-Cenozoic"
world. All edible food
that is essential for Man suddenly appears in the age
scientists have dubbed "Cenozoic." Even the
atmosphere, the climate, the seasons and the modern
topographyincluding the present limits of the
oceanare characteristic only of the "Cenozoic
Era." Our world, the so-called "Cenozoic,"
was refashioned from the shambles left after Lucifer's
rebellion against God. Fossils found in so-called
"Cenozoic" rocks are generally due to the rapid
burial of life forms at the time of noah's flood (Genesis
7 and 8).
These "Cenozoic" or Flood deposits are found above other earlier strata laid down in a terrifying CATASTROPHE that befell the world before Man existed. The deposits of that earlier world end with the first "time of great dying."
Fossil remains from the pre-Adarnic world are found buried in a relative orderwith the rocks on the bottom generally containing sea lifebecause the sea life was first destroyed and buried. Then, later, as the terrifying destruction of life enveloped the land, the dinosaurs and other land life forms were covered by heavy sediments from raging waters. These last deposits of the pre-Adamic world, the so-called "Mesozoic Era," are termed "Early Cretaceous"
The "Mesozoic" worldthe time before man's creation was so characterized by dinosaurs and other reptiles that scientists have rightly called it the "Age of Reptiles." Giant reptilessome weighing probably up to 40 tonsnot only roamed the land, but flew in the air, while yet others excelled the fishes in the sea! Gigantic insects filled the air. Giant tree ferns, horsetails, club mosses, cycads, and conifers covered the face of the earth, creating vast forests unlike any we know today.
In that world were no true mammals, no fish with true scales, no feathered fowl, no grass, no grains or fruits for Man. Man was not then in existence.
The so-called "Paleozoic" rockslayers containing SEA lifetherefore do NOT represent a separate time apart from the "Mesozoic." "Paleozoic" rocks merely contain the buried remains of sea life that was first to be destroyed consequent to Lucifer's rebellion. The characteristic fossils found ift "Paleozoic" rocks are ammonites, trilobites, sea scorpions, sharks and other unedible fishes. Many were giant varieties. This was an entire world unfit for human habitation and enjoyment. All life was suddenly buried. Most life-forms were never re-created when God reformed the earth and made this world habitable for Man (Psalm 104:29-30).
Only man was made in the image of God.... Not Satan and the Angels... Now you see why Satan is called the Dragon in Revelations 12:9...
HOW OLD IS MAN? 6,000 YEARS? OR 600,000 YEARS?
Here's the proof about prehistoric man
Remove from a library shelf any volume on ancient man. Examine its opening chapter.
What will you find? Expressions as: "it is thought," "there appears to be some basis for believing," "it has been suggested," "it may be presumed," "one may safely assume," and "others are of the opinion"just to mention a few.
What do all these carefully chosen expressions really signify?
Just this: Science has no demonstrable evidence for accepting as fact what has been written in the book. The conclusions are mere speculation!
Never Safe to Assume
Just how old is Man? Is there any AUTHORITY who can tell us?
Several modern writers, relying only on geological inferences, place the appearance of man about 25,000 to 35,000 years ago. Others suggest the period is no less than 100,000 years ago. No small number of scholars assume it may be 500,000 years ago. And there are a few who place it several hundred thousand years earlier.Do any of these men really know? And how could intelligent, able men arrive at such absurdly varying figures for the origin of man and the beginnings of ancient history? They all have access, remember, to the same geological and archaeological sources of information. They all have the same factsbut they don't have the same answers! Why?
The answer is, they are all interpreting geologic and archaeological evidence in accordance with their private theories. They are only guessing. They have no way of knowing.
One well-known writer phrased it this way: "We know that there is no absolute knowledge, that there are only theories; but we forget this. The better educated we are the harder we believe in axioms" (Lincoln Steffens Autobiography, page 816).
But we can know. The God who has intervened in historyrecords of whose acts we may read of in ancient sources from many nationsthat God has made known both the time and the place of origin of man. But historians, theologians and scientists alike refuse to believe it, for it leaves them no room to guess!
How "Science" Erred
Let us notice one classic illustration of the total inability of either archaeology or geology to determine the duration of human existence.
Take as an example the so-called Neolithic (New
Stone) colonists of Wessex, Englandnear the site of famous
Stone-henge. Here is the proof thai
Science is only guessing? "Estimates of the length of their
sojourn have been very varied, the most extreme being that of W.
A. Sturge, President of the Prehistoric Society of East Anglia in
confidently stated and considered that he had proved 'on irrefragable evidence' that the Neolithic period had lasted well over 200,000 years - a grossly inaccurate estimate. . . . Five to ten generations of men, or 100-200 years, would perhaps be nearer the mark as an estimate of time . . ." declared archaeologist J. F. S. Stone recently (Wessex Before the Celts, page 51).
Here is a classic example of mis-knowledge that masquerades as fact! Imagine guesses that vary from 100 years to 200,000!
Why such incomprehensible variations? Because no scientific means can determine the speed with which geological deposits were laid in the past or how long ago the deposition occurred, or the cause. Nor can any archaeologist determine accurately the rate of accumulation of human remains unless there is some contemporary written evidence to compare wirh.
No "Prehistory" of Man
The modern idea that man has been upon earth for more than 6000 years is predicated on the assumption that "prehistoric time" once existed. Almost everyone takes it for granted. Few have ever thought to question it.
As used by critical historians, "prehistoric time" is said to refer to earliest antiquity that is nowhere documented in written records. Is this kind of "prehistoric time" really a fact?
Turn to Genesis 1:1 for the answer. "In the beginning God created the heavens and the earth." Time is coeval with the creation, for time is measured by the movements of the created heavenly bodies. But here also is a record of what occurred at the beginning. Here is a documented account reaching back even to the beginning of time. "Prehistoric time" in this sense is therefore irreconcilable with Scripture, for there is no period of time that is not documented in the Bible.
But how did the theory of "prehistoric time" originate? Why was the idea invented?
Stuart Piggott, noted British archaeologist, summarized the development of the theory in his book Approach to Archaeology. Note carefully his wording: "The first step was the realization that non-documented antiquity could in fact exist at ali: that the whole creation and the sum of human history was not in fact contained within the Biblical narrative. This was the repudiation of the theological model of the past . . ." (page 53),
"Prehistory" was developed to explain the presence of man without the Bible. It is merely another facet of the "historical method" which denies the possibility of God in history.
The fallacy of "prehistory" is clearly explained in rhe Encyclopedia Americana. Here is the surprising statement: "it is no longer accurate or logical to use the term 'prehistoric, unless it is employed to designate that vague and hypothetical period in the beginnings of human development of which there exists no positive and tangible record. " (from "History, its rise and development").
Could words be plainer?
"Prehistoric"scholars now admit denotes nothing more than a "vague and hypothetical period of which there exists no positive and tangible record"
But what of the famous periods or "ages" designated the Palaeolithic (Old Stone), the Mesolithic (Intermediate Stone), the Neolithic (New Scone), the Chalcolithic (Stone and Copper), the Bronze and Iron?
Cultures, Not "Ages"
These terms do nor represent "ages." They are cultural appellations. It is a historical deception to speak of the "Stone Age." There are only Stone cultures, "These names," writes William L Langer in An Encyclopaedia oj World History, "are excellent to identify cultures, but their use to designate periods of time has led to much inaccuracy and confusion, as the dates of the cultures to which they refer differ widely in different parts of the world" (page 2).
That is, societies using iron were contemporary with societies limited to bronze or only stone. Most ancient societies used stone and bronze and iron. Today one may see backward tribes with a Stone culture in New Guinea, Australia, areas of India, Africa and South America side by side with highly industrialized civilizations. These tribes are not "prehistoric." They are contemporary. Throughout history they have paralleled contemporary higher cultures. They are not ancestral to higher cultures as anthropologists assume.
Even the Bible mentions some of these degenerate tribesfalsely called "Stone Age" menwho anciently lived in Palestine and Sinai before migrating to their modern habitat. The reference is found in Job 30; 1-8, Jewish translation: "But now they that are younger than I have me in derision, "Whose fathers I disdained to set with the dogs of my flock. . . .
"Men in whom ripe age is perished. They are gaunt with want and famine; "They gnaw the dry ground, in the gloom of wasteness and desolation, "They pluck salt-wart with wormwood; "And the roots of the broom are their food.
'They are driven forth from the midst of men, . , . In the clefts of the valleys must they dwell, "In holes of the earth and of the rocks.
"Among the bushes they bray; "Under the nettles they are gathered together.
"They are children of churls, yea, children of ignoble men; "They were scourged out of the land."
No evolution here. Only degeneration. Civilized man did not descend from degraded, "primitive" tribes. But degraded tribes did descend from civilized men of low birth and degenerate habits. They were anciently driven out from the Middle East with its rising civilization, only to be rediscovered in tropical forests in recent centuries!
Scientific and historical texts call these people "Stone Age" savages - yet they live in the twenty first century! Theirs is a stone and wood culture though they live in the space age! These savages dwell in a little town Sepik River area of New Guinea. They are preparing for a head hunting battle against a rival tribe.
These facts make it clear why evolutionists are forced to admit: "Evolution is in the last analysis not a matter of evidence, but a matter of inferenc"
(from New Views of Evolution by George Perrigo Conger, p. 91).
Astounding Origin of the Study of Man's Past
Now we come to the origin of i scientific study of human history. The facts are surprising. Few historians are aware of the real origin of their discpline. They generally take for granted as true the principles already laid down for them by preceding historians. Yet one of the basic rules of any scientic study is never to take anything for granted. Let us pull back the curtain on the study of history and view a plot that has eluded even the historians' keen eyes.
History as a scientific discipline may be said to have taken its rise with Lorenzo detla Valla. He demonstrated that the Donation of Constantine, on which the secular claims of the Roman Catholic Church were originally based, was a medieval forgery.
"Forgery," That word became a touchstone. Soon non-Cathoiic scholars everywhere became critical, negative, looking for spurious documents. The Middle Ages provided many rich finds.
During the same period a great revival in Classical Learning had been occurring. The popes had encouraged Catholic scholars of the Renaissance to revive the study of ancient Roman and Greek literature. In non-Catholic educational circles Classical Learning became associated with Catholicism. The inevitable occurred. Scholars who resented everything the word authority stood for saw in the Greek and Roman Classics the symbolism of authority and tradition. Tradition would not be purged out, they reasoned, unless the Classics were also attacked and labeled as spurious.
The frontal assault began. At the close of the eighteenth century Friedrich August Wolf challenged the scholarly world with his work on Homer (1795 ) The ancient Greek poet Homerfamous for having composed the two great epics, the Iliad and the Odyssey did not compose either epic in its present form, charged Wolf. Homer, he reasoned, did not know how to write. The epics, he concluded, were pieced together from oral traditions long after Homer lived. They were therefore unauthentic, Wolf concluded.
The floodgates of criticism were now opened wide. Thousands of youths, flocking to the German universities for their doctorates, were assigned the task of criticizing classical literature. At the height of the epidemic, scarcely a single ancient work remained unimpugned as biased, untrue to fact, or unauthentic. Into the swirl of condemined poems, dramas, myths were heaved the sober histories of Herodotus, and Thucydides, the annals of the Greek city-states, the Greek records of ancient Egypt, Assyria and Media. All ancient Greek and Roman history was condemmed by one scholar or another as spurious, unauthentic, fabulous, unhistoficaibecause writing, said the critics, had not been known. How could the Greeks have preserved authentic histories reaching back 2,000 years before the time of Christ, asked the critics, if the Greeks did not even know how to write till the seventh century before our era?
What the Archaeologists Discover
The historians of that day were greatly influenced by the subjective reasoning of the German Higher Critics. They accepted their verdict. Greek records prior to the seventh century disappear from history books, or were labeled footnotes as fabulous, or, at best, garbled.
Nearly a half century elapsed. During that period a new science arosearchaology. The past was being dug up. What did the excavators discover? Writing materials and documents dating more than 2,000 years before the time of Christ! And in the Greek world, too!
The Greeks did know how to write after all. The critics, including Wolf had been wrong. The imagined illiteracy of the early Greeks was a myth. The argument that they could not have preserved their history correctly was false.
But did the new evidence make a difference to the critics or to the historians? Were they willing to reconsider their conclusions? How were the historians going to explain that the basis for rejecting Greek history had been exploded?
No answers came forth, The new evidence was greeted with silence. All who brought up the problem were ridiculed as unscientific. Decades have passed, but not once has the evidence been reconsidered. The plot to suppress the truth has succeeded till now. But the story does not end here.
Why the Bible Was Attacked
Every year saw fresh hordes of students arrive at the German universities demanding doctoral dissertations, johann Gottlieb Fichte had made the German educational system famous the world over. Many students from abroad were coming to study in Germany under the great literary critics. The German professors insisted that their students thresh again the old classics. But this was not research. It was mere confirmation of what had already been universaly accepted. With the quantity of classical raw material strictly limited in the early nineteenth century, a new field of study had to be thought up.
A "new discovery' must be found, the critics agreed, if Germany was to maintain absolute educational domination of the world, Such a discovery necessarily meant something to attack, for assailing a commonly accepted Idea always creates interest, What literature, the critics asked themselves, did people believe to be true, but which had not yet been subjected to higher criticism?
Protestant Germany had, since the days of Dr. Martin Luther, assumed the absolute authenticity of Scripture. What a challenge! The opening wedge of the attack had, in actuality, been made by Dr. Luther himself, for had he not denounced the epistle of James as a book of straw?
All the methodology and reasoning, once feverishly applied to classical literature, was now directed in a frontal assault on the authenticity and historicity of Scripture. The Bible, proudly announced the critics, was pieced together from tradition in much the same fashion as the ancient Greek and Roman classics had been. The extremists declared it a pious fraud.
The literature of the Old Testament was rejected as contrary to human experience. It was obviously unhisrorical, they concluded, for no events of a supernatural nature were befalling any nation todayand certainly not any German professors and students! There was no God punishing them for their attacks upon Him, as He had once punished Israel.
Historians who had heretofore acknowledged the authority of the historical record in the Old Testament were impressed with the theories of the literary scholars. Then, too, the theory of organic evolution was mushrooming. Rationalism was king. Within a few decades the entire study of history was reshaped to meet the new theories. But how were historians to reconstruct ancient history without the Old Testament? without God? without the supernatural. with all the early classical events removed? What kind of framework would they use to date events? History had to have some kind of chronological backbone.
Framework of History Founded on Egypt
A new reconstruction and interpretation of history without God or the supernatural, and now without Genesis, was foisted upon the world in the latter half of the nineteenth century. It first created the phantom of "prehistory," as we have already noted. To bolster their concept of "ancient man," the discoveries by travellers of savage, cannibalistic tribes in far away places were heavily called upon. It became a fad to picture "early man" in the garb of a savage.
The next step was to tie "prehistory" to modern history. What chronological means was to be used? The answer is twofold: astronomy and the history of Egypt.
Rationalism had disposed of all super-naturalism in history. God was excluded from nature. Uniformitarianism became a basic concept. The astronomer was now called on by the historian to date the past for thousands of years on the basis of the present movement of heavenly bodies. All ancient historical records referring to supernatural movements of the heavens were rejected as mythological. Away went "Joshua's long day," and the backward decline of the sun for ten degrees in the kingship of Hezekiah.
From the Biblical record it would be impossible to determine the position ofany solar body prior to the time of Hezekiah. (See II Kings 20:8-11 when the sun was seen to move back 10 degrees in the heavens.)
Of course historians postulate that since God, according to their reasoning, could not intervene in the course of nature, it would be possible to date the past by calculating backward the present movements of the sun, moon and other planets, and the stars. All that was necessary, said the historians, was to discover, through archaeological means, early calendars and ancient documents that referred to positions of the sun, or moon, or the rise of the stars on certain stated calendar days.
A few documents were discovered but, alas, they did not agree with the present movements of the heavenly body. The historians unwilling to admit uniformitarianism an error decided the mistaken numbers lay in the scribes who copied the astronomical documents. It was an easy task to change the figures on the cuneiform tablets and Egyptian papyri!
Still a problem remained,
No ancient date could be determined by astronomical means unless the approximate date had already been determined by historical methods. Here is where Egypt comes on the scene.
Egypt seemed to provide the best solution. Her earliest documents were more likely to be preserved because of the warm, dry climate. Most of the monuments were above ground, unlike those in Mesopotamia. This made it a much easier task for the archaeologist. Egypt, decided the scholars, should become the historical standard of the world. Its civilization was certainly one of the oldest and earliest. Why not tie "prehistory" and modern history together through Egypt, they reasoned.
Now came the difficulty. Archaeology could not always determine which Egyptian monuments and which kings' reigns came first. There were no buried cities, one above another, as in Mesopotamia. No stratigraphy to determine the exact order of events. The only solution was to adopt the traditional dynastic history of Egypt. It is based on the Greek versions of Manetho, an Egyptian priest and historian, who drew up the history of ancient Egypt under thirty dynasties.
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A cast of a fragment of the Palermo Stone. This inscription lists the kings of Abydos, Memphis and Elephantine- the first dynasties of Egypt- in successive order. Historians assumed with this arrangement that each ruler succeeded each other in consecutive order. It never seems to have occured to them that the kings of each city were ruling in part contemporaneously, but that the scribes listed the cities successively in order of their relative importance as a matter. The forthcoming world history will explain what really happened in the ancient near east.
Is Egyptian History Correct?
The dynastic history of Egypt is universally assumed to be correct. No historian thinks of questioning it. It is simply one of the assumptions he has taken for granted.
The time has come to explode this assumption! The story of how it became universally accepted over 2,000 years ago is one of the most intriguing in all the annals of history. Let us roll back the centuries and discover the plot that changed history.
The historians of the last century inherited their views of history from the classical professors, for ancient history studies. The classical professors were interested in attacking literature. But they needed history for background if they were to demonstrate that early writings were merely garbled oral traditions and mythical accounts of heroes.
It suited their purpose to retain the commonly accepted view of history. The earlier that ancient events could be placed, they reasoned, the longer the time for oral traditions and myths to develop. The greater the likelihood for events to become garbled and untrue to fact.
Thus the framework of history remained essentially the same as it had been all through the Middle Ages.
Medieval and Modern Europe inherited its account of the past mainly through Catholic scholars and historians. These men obtained their information from earlier Greek documents long since lost. But from where did the Greek world obtain its history of Egypt? From the Egyptians.
The framework of all history, in simple terms, is derived ultimately from Egyptparticularly through the writings of Manetho.
In Manetho's time a spirit of competition reached a climax. Egypt and Babylonia were vying with each other for influence over the Greek - speaking world. Each sought to be known as the founder of civilization, of cultural and religious institutions, of political unity. Vanity was coupled in both by a deep sense of inferiority, for both were peoples subject to the Greeks. To rise above that feeling, each claimed to be the first people of earth, not alone in the sense of civilization, but in the sense of time.
This fact all modern historians have completely overlooked.
To justify their claims to antiquity, Manetho of Egypt utilized the early records, the king lists of the various contemporary city-states, and cleverly marshalled them together in consecutive order. Manetho summarized the history of Egypt under the rule of thirty dynasties, or ruling houses, from the royal cities of Abydos, Memphis, Elephantine, Hetacleopolis, Xois,Thebes, Tanis, Bubastis, Sais and other cities. The history of the royal families of each city was drawn up to make it appear that only one city at a time dominated Egypt, and that Egypt was, from its beginning, under the government of only one ruler at a time. The result was that Egypt appeared to be extremely ancient! But it was a fraud! Egypt was ruled by several kings at the same time!
The internal details of the reigns of the kings of the various dynasties were scrupulously correctthey had to be to make the history look validbut the order in which the dynasties appeared was a historic lie. Manetho cleverly told the history of the ruling families of each city. Then he attached them end to end not only to make Egypt appear the oldest country on earth but also to make it seem as if only one king ruled at a time. It was all a fraud.
Egypt's contemporary kings exercised authority under the most powerful who was called Pharaoh. The word Pharaoh means the Great Houseas there were also lesser houses ruling.
Your own Bible preserves an account of more than one king in Egypt at the same time: "Lo, the king of Israel hath hired against us," said the Arameans, "the kings of the Hittites, and the kings of the Egyptians" (II Kings 7:6). Like Egypt, the land of Assyria also had more than one king at the same time: "At that time did king Ahaz send unto the kings of Assyria to help him" (II Chronicles 28:16). Historians falsely charge these verses are untrue to fact.
As an example of the strength of a great confederation, one may name Imperial Germany. Few are really aware that the German Empire, like the ancient Egyptian Empire, was a confederation governed by several kings even at the time of World War I, The supreme ruler was of the Prussian House of Hohenzollern, William II (1888-1918). Ruling with him in the German Confederation were Frederick Augustus III (1904-1918), king of Saxony; William II (1891-1918), king of Wuerttemberg; Louis III (1913-1918), king of Bavaria; and Ernest Augustus (1913-1918), duke of Brunswick. All lost their thrones in November of 1918.
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The famous "Israel Stela" in which Pharaih Merenptah records: "Plundered is Canaan... Israel is laid waste, his seed is not..." Historians have attempted to read into this granite monument an account of the Exodus, or of Joshua's invasion. Utter nonsense! It is a contemporary record of the deportation of Israel from Canaan by Assyria! The error arose by dating Pharaoh Merenptah five centuries too early.
6000 Years of History to Be Unscrambled
And that is how the story of early man developed. It is based on a series of assumptions and historical fraudsyet it is taught as if it were fact.
Man has been on the earth only about 6,000 years as the Bible plainly reveals. No evidence to the contrary has ever been demonstrated, or ever can be!
It is time we began to believe God